Function of PCA3 in prostate tissue and clinical research progress on developing a PCA3 score
Prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3, also known as DD3) is a new biomarker that could improve the accuracy of prostate cancer diagnosis. It is a great biomarker with fairly high specificity and sensitivity. The incidence of prostate cancer is rising steadily in most countries. The commonly used prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test once gave people hope for early diagnosis of prostate cancer. However, the low specificity of the PSA test has resulted in a large number of unnecessary biopsies and overtreatment. During the past decade, many new prostate cancer biomarkers have been found. Among these, PCA3 is the most promising. Due to its great performance in distinguishing prostate cancer from other prostate conditions, PCA3 could likely be applied for early diagnosis of prostate cancer, patient follow-up, prognosis prediction, and targeted therapy. After years of research, we have obtained some knowledge about the sequence of PCA3 gene. We have also determined the relationship between PCA3 and the proliferation of prostate cancer cells and learned some information about how PCA3 affects tumor-related genes and proteins. A PCA3 score has been created, and it has been used in a variety of studies. Some researchers have even applied PCA3 to targeted therapy and obtained a good effect in vitro. This review describes the current state of research, and explores the future prospects for PCA3.