The induction of the apoptosis of cancer cell by sonodynamic therapy: a review
Ultrasound can be used not only in the examination, but also in the therapy, especially in the therapy of cancer, which has got effect in the treatment. Sonodynamic therapy is an experimental cancer therapy which uses ultrasound to enhance the cytotoxic effects of drugs known as sonosensitizers. It has been tested in vitro and in vivo. The ultrasound could penetrate the tissue and cell under some of conditions which directly changes the cell membranes permeability, thereby allowing the delivery of exogenous molecules into the cells in some degree. Ultrasound could inhibit the proliferation or induce the apoptosis of the cancer cell in vitro or in vivo. Recent research indicated low frequency and low intensity ultrasound could induce cells apoptosis, and which could be strengthened by sonodynamic sensitivities, microbubbles, chemotherapeutic drugs and so on. Most kinds of ultrasound suppressed the proliferation of cancer cell through inducing the apoptosis of cancer cell. The mechanism of apoptosis is not clear. In this review, we will focus on and discuss the mechanisms of the induction of the apoptosis of cancer cell by ultrasound.